Antique Timeline
Elizabethan 1558-1603 This, by definition still comes into the Tudor Period, but the style is characterised by even more florid decortaion, such as strapwork, terminal figures, bulbous supports, festoons, swags, geometric and medallion panels, lozenges, arcading and pilasters. 
Jacobean 1605-1625 Strictly speaking the term should apply only to the reign of James I but the style continued long after his death. Oak is still the prime medium with such use as marquetry or parquetry and poker work. 
Cromwellian 1649-1660 When the king was eliminated in 1649, the Cromwellian or Commonwealth period began. The Puritan discipline and austerity began. Utilitarian was in and ornamentation was curtailed.

The Commonwealth furniture was an interruption in the general trends of English furniture development. It disdained foreign influence, ornamentation, luxury, and decoration, appealing to simple straightforward designs.

Carolean 1660-1685 This saw a reaction against the austerity of the Puritan era which preceded it. the country was open to a flood of Continental influences, all of which were characterised by their flamboyance and exuberence. 
William & Mary 1689-1702 This period saw a general sobering of furniture styles, due to the staid influences of William's Dutch background. His great craftsman Danial Marot, a Huguenot refugree, interpreted Louis XIV fashions in a quiter Dutch idiom. 

Queen Anne, 1702-1714

In this period walnut furniture reached its best phase. The emphasis was on graceful curves and a return to the veneer instead of marquetry and decoration. Simple elagance was the hallmark of the period, demonstrated in such detail as cabriole legs, hoop backed chairs and bracket feet. 
Georgian 1714-1820 The earlier Georgian period produced the heavier and and the more florid Baroque style, while the middle of the period saw the rise of such great designers as Hepplewhite, Chippendale adn Sheraton. Mahogany competed with and finally supplanted walnut as a medium for the best quality pieces. The later period saw the Neo Classical Revival uner Adam, with increasing use, too, of tropical woods. 
Regency 1800-1830 Strictly speaking this period applies only to the Regency of George, Prince of Wales from 1811-1820, although it is more generally used to cover the period from 1800 to the accession of William IV in 1830. During this time, dark exotic woods and veneers were popular, set off by ormolu mounts and grilles for doors. A vogue for furniture purporting to be based on classical models ran concurrently with a fondness for chinoiserie and oriental motifs, and some fine lacquer work was produced. Initially elegant, the style later became somewhat clumsy. 
Victorian 1837-1901 During the early Victorian period, British furniture design reached its nadir. The emphasis was on rich and elaborate carving, and there was much use of substitute materials which new technology was making available. Of these, the only one of any real quality was papier mache. After 1851, the style became more uniform, characterised by the use of solid wood, more severe outlines, and though carving remained as a principal form of embellishment, it was more constrained and carefully disposed. The late Victorian period saw a gothic revival, under Pugin and Burges, and the revolt of William Morris and others led to the development of the Arts and Crafts Movement. 
Edwardian 1901-1910 Under the influence of Art Noveau and the Arts and Craft Movement, Edwardian furniture styles brightened up considerably after the darker excesses of high Victoriana. Lighter woods became popular, and the period was characterised by a lightness and daintiness of design, with much use of attractive inlays.
Art Deco 1910 - 1935 Art Deco began in the early 20th Century in Europe, Paris in particular and then thoughout Europe after the First WW. The outbreak of the 2nd WW saw the demise of the Deco fashion. Art Deco is very popular again today but one has to be careful as a lot of Art Deco furniture currently for sale is reproduction and of a inferior quality. 
1950's on The tough time after the Wars throughout Europe meant that design and Art generally took a back seat to the rebuilding needs of countries. The arrival of mass produced furniture stifled the chance of any radical/individual new styles emerging (a real pity!).